ROUTINE HUMAN-COMPETITIVE MACHINE INTELLIGENCE 
                 BY MEANS OF GENETIC PROGRAMMING
 


Abstract:

Genetic programming is method for automatically creating computer programs.
It starts from a high-level a high-level statement of what needs to be done
and breeds a population of programs over many generations. Genetic
programming now routinely delivers high-return human-competitive machine
intelligence. In addition, genetic programming is an automated invention
machine. Among the 36 human-competitive results produced so far by genetic
programming, there are 14 instances where genetic programming has created an
entity that either infringes or duplicates the functionality of a previously
patented 20th-century invention, six instances where genetic programming has
done the same with respect to an invention patented after January 1, 2000,
and 2 instances where genetic programming has created a patentable new
invention. The inventions generated by genetic programming exhibit the kind
of illogical discontinuity from previous human work that is required to
obtain a patent. Methodologically, genetic programming can automatically
create a general solution to a problem in the form of a parameterized
topology. Taking a historical perspective, genetic programming has delivered
a progression of qualitatively more substantial results in synchrony with
five approximately order-of-magnitude increases in the expenditure of
computer time.